Plus EIS Package

PalmSens4 (Galvanostat / Potentiostat / Impedance Analyzer)

Adds Impedance Spectroscopy to your package

The PalmSens4 is a jack-of-all-trades potentiostat, galvanostat and impedance analyzer with the convenience of battery power and a Bluetooth connection. It allows for highly interface sensitive advanced electrochemistry everywhere. Together with the Corrosion Cell and the Corrosion Handbook you can even tackle the advanced technique Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS).

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    Product Description

    PalmSens4 is a USB and battery powered Potentiostat, Galvanostat, and Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) analyser. The PalmSens4 has a large potential range (-10V to 10V) and current range (100 pA to 10 mA) with a high resolution and low noise. This instrument is a complete laboratory instrument but its compact and rugged design makes it also ideal for field work.

    PalmSens4 allows for a wide range of corrosion analysis methods; polarization curves to extract the tafel slopes, corrosion rates, corrosion current, apply a current to the surface for electroplating, deposit films or force corrosion to happen. Additionally you can perform EIS (Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy) from 0.1 µHz to 1 MHz, which will allow you to extract the coating resistance, the polarization resistance, the pore resistance, the coating capacitance, water uptake of a coating and to estimate the time to failure (TTF).

    Available Configurations

    The PalmSens4 is available with ±5V or ±10V DC-potential range and with different maximum frequencies for FRA / EIS. The following table shows the applicable product codes:

    DC-Potential Range of ±5V
    DC-Potential Range of ±10V
    EIS up to 100 kHz [F1] PS4.F1.05 PS4.F1.10
    EIS up to 1 MHz [F2] PS4.F2.05 PS4.F2.10


    Standard included with a PalmSens4:

    • Rugged carrying case
    • High quality, double shielded cell cable with 2 mm banana
      connectors for Working, Counter, Reference electrode and Ground
    • Crocodile clips
    • USB cable
    • PSTrace software for Windows

    Supported techniques

    The following techniques are supported by PalmSens4:

    Corrosion techniques:

    • Potentiostatic Polarization
    • Galvanostatic Polarization
    • Linear Polarization
    • Cyclic Polarization
    • Corrosion Potential
    • Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS)

    Voltammetric techniques:

    • Linear Polarization
    • Cyclic Polarization
    • Differential Pulse Voltammetry (DPV)
    • Square Wave Voltammetry (SWV)
    • Normal Pulse Voltammetry (NPV)
    • AC Voltammetry (ACV)

    These methods can all be used in their stripping modes which are applied for (ultra-) trace analysis.

    • Stripping chronopotentiometry (PSA or SCP)

    Technique as a function of time:

    • Corrosion Potential Measurement
    • Chronoamperometry (CA)
    • Pulsed Amperometric Detection (PAD)
    • Multiple Pulse Amperometry (MPAD)
    • Fast amperometry (FAM)
    • Chronopotentiometry (CP)
    • Multistep Amperometry (MA)
    • Multistep Potentiometry (MP)
    • Mixed Mode (MM)

    Impedance spectroscopy / EIS:

    • Potential scan
    • Time scan

    Scans can be made at a fixed frequency or with a frequency scan.

    • Fixed potential
    dc-potential range ± 10 V (or ± 5 V)
    compliance voltage ± 10V
    maximum current ± 30 mA (typical)
    max. acquisition rate 150,000 data points/s
    Potentiostat (controlled potential mode)
    applied dc-potential resolution 75 µV
    applied potential accuracy ≤ 0.1% ± 1 mV offset
    current ranges 100 pA to 10 mA (9 ranges)
    current accuracy ≤ 0.1 % (at Full Scale Range)
    measured current resolution 0.006 % of current range (5 fA on 100 pA range)
    Galvanostat (controlled current mode)
    current ranges 1 nA to 10 mA (8 ranges)
    applied dc-current range ± 6 times applied current range
    applied dc-current resolution 0.005 % of applied current range
    measured dc-potential accuracy 75 μV at ± 10 V
    7.5 μV at ± 1 V
    0.75 μV at ± 0.1 V
    FRA / EIS (impedance measurements)
    frequency range 10 μHz to 1 MHz (or 10 μHz to 100 kHz)
    ac-amplitude range 1 mV to 0.25 V rms, or 0.6 V p-p
    electrometer amplifier input > 1 TΩ // 10 pF
    bandwidth 1 MHz
    housing  aluminium with rubber sleeve: 15.7 x 9.7 x 3.5 cm3
    weight 500 g
    temperature range 0 ºC to + 50 ºC
    power supply USB or internal LiPo battery
    communication USB and Bluetooth
    battery time > 16 hours idle time
    > 4 hours with cell on at max. current
    Extendable by means of power bank
    internal storage space 4 GB
    or +/- 400000 measurements incl. method info (assuming 200 data points per measurement)
    Auxiliary port (D-Sub 15)
    analog input ± 10 V, 18 bit
    analog output 0-10 V, 12 bit (1 kOhm output impedance)
    4 digital outputs 0-3.3 V
    1 digital input 0-3.3 V (5 V tolerant)
    I-out and E-out raw output of current and potential
    E-out ± 10 V (1 kOhm output impedance)
    I-out ± 6 V (1 kOhm output impedance)
    power 5 V output (max. 150 mA)

    The current is measured using a zero resistance ammeter (ZRA).

    PSTrace5 for Windows


    PSTrace software is shipped as standard with PalmSens and Emstat instruments. The software provides support for all techniques and device functionalities. With a smooth simple interface, showing only the applicable controls, PSTrace is suitable for all levels of user experience.

    Corrosion Mode

    The PSTrace5 Corrosion Mode contains functions for automated Tafel Plot of Polarization Curves instantly providing:
    ▪ Corrosion Potential
    ▪ Corrosion Current
    ▪ Tafel Slopes
    ▪ Corrosion Rate

    Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) allows observing:
    ▪ Changes on Surface Properties
    ▪ Pitting Corrosion
    ▪ Water uptake of a coating
    ▪ Estimation of Delamination Area
    ▪ Estimation of Time to Failure


    This Kit will provide you a standard corrosion cell with a sample holder for metal coupons (up to 15 mm diameter) exposing 1 cm diameter round area to the solution as well as the equipment for the Stern-Makrides arrangement. This cell is suitable for many common corrosion related measurements. The Corrosion Cell Set is made by ItalSens and contains:

    • 1 x 1 L glass vessel
    • 2 x graphite counter electrode with holder
    • 1 x saturated calomel electrode with salt bridge
    • 1 x sample holder for flat coupons
    • 2 x platinum counter electrodes
    • 1 x parts for the Stern-Makrides arrangement
    • spare O-rings and Teflon parts


    If you are looking for more options to gain the maximum efficiency out of your EmStat3+ Blue, the following accessories are interesting for you:

    See all PalmSens4 compatible extensions and accessories.

    If you are just starting starting with electrochemistry or you have experience in electrochemistry but not in corrosion research, this handbook will provide some essential knowledge to you, which will enable you to perform first measurements and to dive deeper into corrosion literature, if necessary, equipped with the right terminology and a grasp of the principles.

    The tutorials in this more than 40 pages document want to explain some basic knowledge of corrosion research with a focus on Linear Polarization Curves and Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy EIS. Furthermore it should afterwards be possible to have a general idea of what can be read from the Tafel plot and the EIS spectrum. Some typical shapes of curves and spectra will be shown, to develop some feeling for possible phenomena and indicators.

    Parts of the handbook can be found in the Tutorials section.


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